Breadcrumbs are hyperlinks on a webpage and refer to a specific website navigation technique. Breadcrumbs typically appear horizontally near the top of a Web page, providing links back to each previous page that the user navigates through in order to get to the current page. Basically, they provide a trail for the user to follow back to the starting/entry point of a website and may look something like this:
home page > section page > sub section page
This technique also is referred to as a breadcrumb trail and may also be enabled in search engine results.
Image: Examples of Breadcrumbs on a webpage and in Google search results.