Short for electronic mail, email (or e-mail) is defined as the transmission of messages over communications networks. Typically the messages are notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk. Most mainframes, minicomputers, and computer networks have an email system.
Some electronic mail systems are confined to a single computer system or network, but others have gateways to other computer systems, enabling users to send electronic mail anywhere in the world. Companies that are fully computerized make extensive use of e-mail because it is fast, flexible, and reliable.
Typical Components of an Email System
Most e-mail systems include a rudimentary text editor for composing messages, but many allow you to edit your messages using any editor you want. Some systems will also provide basic formatting, including bold, italics, font color and HTML. You can use the program to send the message to a recipient by specifying the recipient's address. You can also send the same message to several users at once. This is called broadcasting.
Sent messages are stored in electronic mailboxes until the recipient fetches them. To see if you have any mail, you may have to check your electronic mailbox periodically, although many systems alert you when mail is received. After reading your mail, you can store it in a text file, forward it to other users, or delete it. Copies of memos can be printed out on a printer if you want a paper copy.
Email Provided by Online Services and ISPs
All online services and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) offer email, and most also support gateways so that you can exchange mail with users of other systems. Usually, it takes only a few seconds or minutes for mail to arrive at its destination. This is a particularly effective way to communicate with a group because you can broadcast a message or document to everyone in the group at once.
Recommended Reading: Webopedia's webmail definition.
Although different e-mail systems use different formats, there are some emerging standards that are making it possible for users on all systems to exchange messages. In the PC world, an important e-mail standard is MAPI. The CCITT standards organization has developed the X.400 standard, which attempts to provide a universal way of addressing messages.
To date, though, the de facto addressing standard is the one used by the Internet system because almost all e-mail systems have an Internet gateway.
Note: Another common spelling for email is e-mail.
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